By Charles E. Taylor, Jonathan T. Kwan
This ebook had its genesis in a symposium on fuel hydrates offered on the 2003 Spring nationwide assembly of the yank Institute of Chemical Engineers. The symposium consisted of twenty papers provided in 4 classes over days. extra visitor authors have been invited to supply continuity and canopy themes no longer addressed through the symposium. gasoline hydrates are a special type of chemical substances the place molecules of 1 compound (the visitor fabric) are enclosed, with no bonding chemically, inside of an open reliable lattice composed of one other compound (the host material). all these configurations are often called clathrates. The visitor molecules, u- best friend gases, are of a suitable dimension such that they healthy in the cage shaped by way of the host fabric. Commonexamples of gasoline hydrates are carbon dioxide/water and methane/water clathrates. At usual strain and temperature, methane hydrate includes by way of quantity a hundred and eighty occasions as a lot methane as hydrate. the USA Geological Survey (USGS) has predicted that there's extra natural carbon c- tained as methane hydrate than all other kinds of fossil fuels mixed. actually, methane hydrates may provide a fresh resource of strength for a number of centuries. Clathrate compounds have been first chanced on within the early 1800s whilst Humphrey Davy and Michael Faraday have been experimenting with chlorine-water combinations.
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General relationships for main thermodynamic quantities are obtained (chemical potentials of water molecules in the host crystalline lattice and guest molecules, internal energy) generalizing corresponding results of the vdW-P theory. The first version of this paper was presented as a poster at the workshop . Recently a generalization of the vdW-P model for multiple filling of cages, starting from the canonical ensemble for guests, and results of extensive calculations were presented . 2.
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Similar to the induction period, it is assumed that the gas consumed from the gas phase is totally converted into hydrate during the growth period. The gas consumed from the liquid by the reaction will be replaced, and the saturation of the liquid will hold during this period. Because we assume that all hydrate being formed migrates rapidly to the gas-liquid interface and grow 34 M. Carolina Gonzalez Chacin et al. as a “layer” there, we can compute the “thickness” of this “layer” using where R is the rate of reaction, and is the molar gas density.
Advances in the Study of Gas Hydrates by Charles E. Taylor, Jonathan T. Kwan